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UniRitters law, architecture and veterinary medicine programs have also received recognition: Briefly, MCA is a multivariate data analytic technique that provides a simple and exhaustive analysis that allows for a detailed description of the data.

Summary of all changes in the number of some cells present in the intestinal mucosa of the rat duodenum, related to innate immunity.

International journal of occupational medicine and environmental health 2395—, doi: The increase in the number of eosinophils observed in the condition of SD was significantly higger than the observed one in the condition of stress. UniRitter is well known for its hybrid learning programs and dual-degree programs with other Laureate International Universities network institutions. In both cellular types a significant increase was observed in the periglandular area with respect to the group no-infected sufficient sleep SSwhile at villi level, the SD produced an alone significant increase in the number of eosinophils.

However, an increase was observed in the group of animals that were only infected Archives of histology and cytology 531—21 UniRitter received three stars in the evaluation of QS Stars. The histological analysis corresponding to the infected SS and SD groups showed a slight increment in the number of enteroendocrine cells Fig.

At glandular level, a significantly increased number of enteroendocrine cells under SD conditions were observed when compared with the infected SS group. Sleep is considered to be an important predictor of the immunity, since the absence of sleep can affect the development of the immune response, and consequently increase the susceptibility to contract an infection.

Journal of applied physiology 99—, doi: Briefly, consisted uqm inserting a gastric catheter, uak muscle larvae of T. Innate immune response mechanisms in the intestinal epithelium: The square is a magnification of typical PAS-positive goblet cell.

The duodenal villi in the no-infected groups were lined by normal simple columnar epithelia; however, the stress and SD groups showed a slightly increased number of eosinophils in the lamina propria, whereas an increased number of eosinophils was evident in the lamina propria in the three groups of infected rats.


Enteroendocrine cells in gastrointestinal pathophysiology. Participated also in hystological analysis. Homeostatic regulation occurs cbe acute sleep deprivation and impaired in chronic sleep disorders, such as chronic sleep apnea 30 Previous reports indicate that more than 4 days of REM sleep deprivation induce a generalized physiological breakdown These cells were identified inside of villi and intestinal gland epithelium, confined to the vicinity of the basal lamina.

In a previous study by our group, we evaluated whether sleep deprivation causes the dysregulation of immune variables during an immune response against the helminth parasite T. Glands Goblet cells Goblet cells present an intense pink color when fully loaded with granules or a slight pink shade, with a clear center, when the cells have secreted their content into the microenvironment Fig.

National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Goblet kam present an usm pink color when fully loaded with granules or a slight pink shade, with a clear center, when the cells have secreted their content into the microenvironment Fig. The Journal fuia Neuroscience 34—, doi: B Quantification of villi enteroendocrine cells in SS solid barsstress shaded barsand SD open bars in no-infected and infected groups.

The stress and SD conditions exert a modulating effect on the epithelium, and the numerical and functional modification of both enteroendocrine and goblet cells might alter the dynamic integrity of the mucosal barrier protecting the host from infection and potentially inflammatory stimuli. The school serves more than 18, students at its Porto Alegre and Canoas campuses in southern Brazil.

Primary care 32—, doi: The study of sleep deprivation needs the dbs of the actual physiological conditions, such as an antigenic challenge, without excluding the interaction of other systems responding to the same stimuli.

Internal medicine 55—, doi: As it has been reported 36there is a total loss of REM sleep during the four days of deprivation, as well as a significant decrease of REM sleep in the large platform group.

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The basal cytoplasm, and to a lesser extent the apical cytoplasm, presented argentaffin granules that give the enteroendocrine cells blackened or dark brown color, which easily distinguished from other epithelial cells Fig. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 64—, doi: The top row of photomicrographs shows the no-infected animal groups in the conditions of, from left to right, SS, stress, and SD; whereas the botton row represents the same conditions in the infected animals Fig.

REM sleep deprivation in rats results in inflammation and interleukin elevation. Studies on the experimental manipulation uxm sleep have focused on the effects of sleep deprivation over the neural functions and blood flow of the brain 3132 ; however, the dynamic changes of the intestinal barrier due to sleep deprivation have not gained much attention.


Sleep deprivation also affected different cell populations in the villi of the infected animals provoking a significantly increased number of eosinophils, whereas mast cell presence was significantly diminished when compared with the infected SS group. These findings suggest that the response of the intestinal mucous membrane during the infection caused for T.

Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology 22—, doi: Note that the infection blue continuous line induced a significant increase of villi mast cells in SS condition, while in SD guis a significant decrease with respect to no-infected groups red discontinuous line.


The veterinary medicine degree program was recognized as an outstanding course by the Regional Council of Veterinary Medicine of RS. In addition, using confocal endomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, it has been recently reported that REM sleep deprivation induce changes in the gastric mucosa showing the initial phases of the acute inflammatory response Infection causes a change only in SS condition compared to no-infected groups.

The stress condition in no-infected groups had a significant increase of goblet cells with respect to SS condition but in the three conditions of infected groups no changes in these cells was observed. The stress and SD conditions of no-infected groups had a significant increment in enteroendocrine cells with respect to SS condition. Since the enteroendocrine cells play a fundamental role between the immune system and the enteric nervous system during a severe infectious process, this cell population could be essential in the development of an immune response.

The lamina propria of the duodenum mucosa accomodates numerous migrant and resident cells of the immune system such as eosinophils, neutrophils, mast cells, and macrophages, populating the connective tissue of the villi core, the diffuse lymphatic tissues, and lymphatic nodules.

The square is a magnification of eosinophils arrow located in the lamina propria. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.